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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin C


1.   Combs J, Gerald F. The Vitamins. 4 ed. Burlington: Elsevier Science; 2012.

2.   Erdman JW, MacDonald I, Zeisel SH, International Life Sciences Institute. Present knowledge in nutrition. 10th ed. Ames, Iowa: International Life Sciences Institute; 2012.

3.  Carr AC, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(6):1086-1107.  (PubMed)

4.  Bruno RS, Leonard SW, Atkinson J, et al. Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40(4):689-697.  (PubMed)

5.  Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(7):931-936.  (PubMed)

6.  Levine M, Padayatty SJ, Espey MG. Vitamin C: a concentration-function approach yields pharmacology and therapeutic discoveries. Adv Nutr. 2011;2(2):78-88.  (PubMed)

7.  Levine M, Conry-Cantilena C, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: evidence for a recommended dietary allowance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93(8):3704-3709.  (PubMed)

8.  Levine M, Wang Y, Padayatty SJ, Morrow J. A new recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C for healthy young women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(17):9842-9846.  (PubMed)

9.  Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(7):533-537.  (PubMed)

10.  Carr AC, Bozonet SM, Pullar JM, Simcock JW, Vissers MC. Human skeletal muscle ascorbate is highly responsive to changes in vitamin C intake and plasma concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(4):800-807.  (PubMed)

11.  Frei B, Birlouez-Aragon I, Lykkesfeldt J. Authors' perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(9):815-829.  (PubMed)

12.  Levine M, Rumsey SC, Daruwala R, Park JB, Wang Y. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA. 1999;281(15):1415-1423.  (PubMed)

13.  Lykkesfeldt J, Poulsen HE. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(9):1251-1259.  (PubMed)

14.  Sauberlich, HE. A history of scurvy and vitamin C. In Packer, L. and Fuchs, J, eds. Vitamin C in health and disease. New York: Marcel Decker Inc. 1997: pages 1-24. 

15.  Stephen R, Utecht T. Scurvy identified in the emergency department: a case report. J Emerg Med. 2001;21(3):235-237.  (PubMed)

16.  Weinstein M, Babyn P, Zlotkin S. An orange a day keeps the doctor away: scurvy in the year 2000. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):E55.  (PubMed)

17.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin C. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:95-185.  (National Academy Press)

18.  Knekt P, Ritz J, Pereira MA, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6):1508-1520.  (PubMed)

19. Ye Z, Song H. Antioxidant vitamins intake and the risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008;15(1):26-34.   (PubMed)

20.   Kubota Y, Iso H, Date C, et al. Dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and mortality from cardiovascular disease: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) study. Stroke. 2011;42(6):1665-1672.  (PubMed)

21.   Pfister R, Sharp SJ, Luben R, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT. Plasma vitamin C predicts incident heart failure in men and women in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk prospective study. Am Heart J. 2011;162(2):246-253.  (PubMed)

22.   Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, Khunti K, Davies MJ. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4229.  (PubMed)

23.   Dehghan M, Akhtar-Danesh N, McMillan CR, Thabane L. Is plasma vitamin C an appropriate biomarker of vitamin C intake? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr J. 2007;6:41.  (PubMed)

24.   McRae MP. Vitamin C supplementation lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials. J Chiropr Med. 2008;7(2):48-58.  (PubMed)

25.  Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300(18):2123-2133.  (PubMed)

26.  Roberts LJ, 2nd, Traber MG, Frei B. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer in men. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46(11):1558.  (PubMed)

27.  Frei B. To C or not to C, that is the question! J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(2):253-255.  (PubMed)

28.   Good DC. Cerebrovascular Disease. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, eds. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd ed. Boston; 1990.

29.  Yokoyama T, Date C, Kokubo Y, Yoshiike N, Matsumura Y, Tanaka H. Serum vitamin C concentration was inversely associated with subsequent 20-year incidence of stroke in a Japanese rural community. The Shibata study. Stroke. 2000;31(10):2287-2294.  (PubMed)

30.  Myint PK, Luben RN, Welch AA, Bingham SA, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT. Plasma vitamin C concentrations predict risk of incident stroke over 10 y in 20 649 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk prospective population study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1):64-69.  (PubMed)

31.  Lagowska-Lenard M, Stelmasiak Z, Bartosik-Psujek H. Influence of vitamin C on markers of oxidative stress in the earliest period of ischemic stroke. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62(4):751-756.  (PubMed)

32.  Forman JP, Choi H, Curhan GC. Fructose and vitamin C intake do not influence risk for developing hypertension. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(4):863-871.  (PubMed)

33.  Moran JP, Cohen L, Greene JM, et al. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations relate inversely to blood pressure in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57(2):213-217.  (PubMed)

34.  Block G, Jensen CD, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Crawford PB. Vitamin C in plasma is inversely related to blood pressure and change in blood pressure during the previous year in young Black and White women. Nutr J. 2008;7:35.  (PubMed)

35.  Myint PK, Luben RN, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT. Association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and blood pressure in the European prospective investigation into cancer-Norfolk population-based study. Hypertension. 2011;58(3):372-379.  (PubMed)

36.  Bertoia M, Albanes D, Mayne ST, Mannisto S, Virtamo J, Wright ME. No association between fruit, vegetables, antioxidant nutrients and risk of renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2010;126(6):1504-1512.  (PubMed)

37.  Heinen MM, Verhage BA, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Intake of vegetables, fruits, carotenoids and vitamins C and E and pancreatic cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2012;130(1):147-158.  (PubMed)

38.  Roswall N, Olsen A, Christensen J, Dragsted LO, Overvad K, Tjonneland A. Micronutrient intake and risk of urothelial carcinoma in a prospective Danish cohort. Eur Urol. 2009;56(5):764-770.  (PubMed)

39.  Goodman M, Bostick RM, Kucuk O, Jones DP. Clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents: past, present, and future. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1068-1084.  (PubMed)

40.  Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):547-556.  (PubMed)

41.  Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Ljung H, Bruce A, Wolk A. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer. 2001;91(4):563-567.  (PubMed)

42.  Roswall N, Olsen A, Christensen J, Dragsted LO, Overvad K, Tjonneland A. Micronutrient intake and breast cancer characteristics among postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010;19(5):360-365.  (PubMed)

43.  Nagel G, Linseisen J, van Gils CH, et al. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C and E intake and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119(3):753-765.  (PubMed)

44.  Hutchinson J, Lentjes MA, Greenwood DC, et al. Vitamin C intake from diary recordings and risk of breast cancer in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(5):561-568.  (PubMed)

45.  Tsugane S, Sasazuki S. Diet and the risk of gastric cancer: review of epidemiological evidence. Gastric Cancer. 2007;10(2):75-83.  (PubMed)

46.  Liu C, Russell RM. Nutrition and gastric cancer risk: an update. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(5):237-249.  (PubMed)

47.  Mirvish SS, Wallcave L, Eagen M, Shubik P. Ascorbate-nitrite reaction: possible means of blocking the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Science. 1972;177(4043):65-68.  (PubMed)

48.  Jenab M, Riboli E, Ferrari P, et al. Plasma and dietary vitamin C levels and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST). Carcinogenesis. 2006;27(11):2250-2257.  (PubMed)

49.  Banerjee S, Hawksby C, Miller S, Dahill S, Beattie AD, McColl KE. Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid. Gut. 1994;35(3):317-322.  (PubMed)

50.  Zhang ZW, Patchett SE, Perrett D, Katelaris PH, Domizio P, Farthing MJ. The relation between gastric vitamin C concentrations, mucosal histology, and CagA seropositivity in the human stomach. Gut. 1998;43(3):322-326.  (PubMed)

51.  Chuang CH, Sheu BS, Kao AW, et al. Adjuvant effect of vitamin C on omeprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54(73):320-324.  (PubMed)

52.  Pal J, Sanal MG, Gopal GJ. Vitamin-C as anti-Helicobacter pylori agent: More prophylactic than curative- Critical review. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(6):624-627.  (PubMed)

53.  Park Y, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, et al. Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21(11):1745-1757.  (PubMed)

54.  Thompson CA, Cerhan JR. Fruit and vegetable intake and survival from non-Hodgkin lymphoma: does an apple a day keep the doctor away? Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51(6):963-964.  (PubMed)

55.  Kabat GC, Kim MY, Wactawski-Wende J, Shikany JM, Vitolins MZ, Rohan TE. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Women's Health Initiative. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(2):245-254.  (PubMed)

56.   Tessier F, Moreaux V, Birlouez-Aragon I, Junes P, Mondon H. Decrease in vitamin C concentration in human lenses during cataract progression. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(5):309-315.  (PubMed)

57. Jacques PF, Chylack LT, Jr., Hankinson SE, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(7):1009-1019.  (PubMed)

58.  Yoshida M, Takashima Y, Inoue M, et al. Prospective study showing that dietary vitamin C reduced the risk of age-related cataracts in a middle-aged Japanese population. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46(2):118-124.  (PubMed)

59.  Pastor-Valero M. Fruit and vegetable intake and vitamins C and E are associated with a reduced prevalence of cataract in a Spanish Mediterranean population. BMC Ophthalmol. 2013;13(1):52.  (PubMed)

60.  Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of self-reported cataract among older Americans. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52(12):1207-1211.  (PubMed)

61.  Dherani M, Murthy GV, Gupta SK, et al. Blood levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and retinol are inversely associated with cataract in a North Indian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(8):3328-3335.  (PubMed)

62.  Mathew MC, Ervin AM, Tao J, Davis RM. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;6:CD004567.  (PubMed)

63.  Zheng Selin J, Rautiainen S, Lindblad BE, Morgenstern R, Wolk A. High-dose supplements of vitamins C and E, low-dose multivitamins, and the risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort study of men. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):548-555.  (PubMed)

64.  Rautiainen S, Lindblad BE, Morgenstern R, Wolk A. Vitamin C supplements and the risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort study in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(2):487-493.  (PubMed)

65.   Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(10):3136-3141. (PubMed)

66.  Saag KG, Choi H. Epidemiology, risk factors, and lifestyle modifications for gout. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8 Suppl 1:S2.  (PubMed)

67.  Choi HK, Curhan G. Gout: epidemiology and lifestyle choices. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005;17(3):341-345.  (PubMed)

68.  Gao X, Curhan G, Forman JP, Ascherio A, Choi HK. Vitamin C intake and serum uric acid concentration in men. J Rheumatol. 2008;35(9):1853-1858.  (PubMed)

69.  Choi HK, Gao X, Curhan G. Vitamin C intake and the risk of gout in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(5):502-507.  (PubMed)

70.  Juraschek SP, Miller ER, 3rd, Gelber AC. Effect of oral vitamin C supplementation on serum uric acid: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011;63(9):1295-1306.  (PubMed)

71.  Prinz W, Bortz R, Bregin B, Hersch M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on some parameters of the human immunological defence system. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1977;47(3):248-257.  (PubMed)

72.  Vallance S. Relationships between ascorbic acid and serum proteins of the immune system. Br Med J. 1977;2(6084):437-438.  (PubMed)

73.  Kennes B, Dumont I, Brohee D, Hubert C, Neve P. Effect of vitamin C supplements on cell-mediated immunity in old people. Gerontology. 1983;29(5):305-310.  (PubMed)

74.  Panush RS, Delafuente JC, Katz P, Johnson J. Modulation of certain immunologic responses by vitamin C. III. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo lymphocyte responses. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1982;23:35-47.  (PubMed)

75.  Jariwalla RJ, Harakeh S. Antiviral and immunomodulatory activities of ascorbic acid. In: Harris JR (ed). Subcellular Biochemistry. Vol. 25. Ascorbic Acid: Biochemistry and Biomedical Cell Biology. New York: Plenum Press; 1996:215-231.

76.  Levy R, Shriker O, Porath A, Riesenberg K, Schlaeffer F. Vitamin C for the treatment of recurrent furunculosis in patients with imparied neutrophil functions. J Infect Dis. 1996;173(6):1502-1505.  (PubMed)

77.  Anderson R, Oosthuizen R, Maritz R, Theron A, Van Rensburg AJ. The effects of increasing weekly doses of ascorbate on certain cellular and humoral immune functions in normal volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33(1):71-76.  (PubMed)

78.  Bergsten P, Amitai G, Kehrl J, Dhariwal KR, Klein HG, Levine M. Millimolar concentrations of ascorbic acid in purified human mononuclear leukocytes. Depletion and reaccumulation. J Biol Chem. 1990;265(5):2584-2587.  (PubMed)

79.  Evans RM, Currie L, Campbell A. The distribution of ascorbic acid between various cellular components of blood, in normal individuals, and its relation to the plasma concentration. Br J Nutr. 1982;47(3):473-482.  (PubMed)

80.  Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson JD. Differentiated cells and the maintenance of tissues. In: Molecular Biology of the Cell. 3rd ed. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.; 1994:1139-1193.

81.  Jariwalla RJ, Harakeh S. Mechanisms underlying the action of vitamin C in viral and immunodeficiency disease. In: Packer L, Fuchs J, eds. Vitamin C in Health and Disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1997:309-322.

82.  Pauling L. The immune system. How to Live Longer and Feel Better. 20th Anniversary ed. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press; 2006:105-111.

83.  Dahl H, Degre M. The effect of ascorbic acid on production of human interferon and the antiviral activity in vitro. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand B. 1976;84B(5):280-284.  (PubMed)

84.  Pocobelli G, Peters U, Kristal AR, White E. Use of supplements of multivitamins, vitamin C, and vitamin E in relation to mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(4):472-483.  (PubMed)

85.  Roswall N, Olsen A, Christensen J, et al. Micronutrient intake in relation to all-cause mortality in a prospective Danish cohort. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56.  (PubMed)

86.  Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet. 2001;357(9257):657-663.  (PubMed)

87.  Goyal A, Terry MB, Siegel AB. Serum Antioxidant Nutrients, Vitamin A, and Mortality in US Adults. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013. Oct 17. [Epub ahead of print].  (PubMed)

88.  Vita JA, Keaney JF, Jr. Endothelial function: a barometer for cardiovascular risk? Circulation. 2002;106(6):640-642.  (PubMed)

89.  Gokce N, Keaney JF, Jr., Frei B, et al. Long-term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999;99(25):3234-3240.  (PubMed)

90.  Versari D, Daghini E, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Taddei S. Endothelium-dependent contractions and endothelial dysfunction in human hypertension. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157(4):527-536.  (PubMed)

91.  Frikke-Schmidt H, Lykkesfeldt J. Role of marginal vitamin C deficiency in atherogenesis: in vivo models and clinical studies. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;104(6):419-433.  (PubMed)

92.  Juraschek SP, Guallar E, Appel LJ, Miller ER, 3rd. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(5):1079-1088.  (PubMed)

93.  Newberry SJ. What is the evidence that vitamin C supplements lower blood pressure? Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(5):997-998.  (PubMed)

94.  Harding AH, Wareham NJ, Bingham SA, et al. Plasma vitamin C level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: the European prospective investigation of cancer--Norfolk prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(14):1493-1499.  (PubMed)

95.  Kositsawat J, Freeman VL. Vitamin C and A1c relationship in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30(6):477-483.  (PubMed)

96.  Sargeant LA, Wareham NJ, Bingham S, et al. Vitamin C and hyperglycemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer--Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(6):726-732.  (PubMed)

97.  Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(2):246-252.  (PubMed)

98.  Lee DH, Folsom AR, Harnack L, Halliwell B, Jacobs DR, Jr. Does supplemental vitamin C increase cardiovascular disease risk in women with diabetes? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(5):1194-1200.  (PubMed)

99.  Waters DD, Alderman EL, Hsia J, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(19):2432-2440.  (PubMed)

100.  MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360(9326):23-33.  (PubMed)

101.  Levy AP, Friedenberg P, Lotan R, et al. The effect of vitamin therapy on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis varies by haptoglobin type in postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(4):925-930.  (PubMed)

102.  Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73(10):3685-3689.

103.  Ohno S, Ohno Y, Suzuki N, Soma G, Inoue M. High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009;29(3):809-815.  (PubMed)

104.  Chen Q, Espey MG, Krishna MC, et al. Pharmacologic ascorbic acid concentrations selectively kill cancer cells: action as a pro-drug to deliver hydrogen peroxide to tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(38):13604-13609.  (PubMed)

105.  Chen Q, Espey MG, Sun AY, et al. Ascorbate in pharmacologic concentrations selectively generates ascorbate radical and hydrogen peroxide in extracellular fluid in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(21):8749-8754.  (PubMed)

106.  Chen Q, Espey MG, Sun AY, et al. Pharmacologic doses of ascorbate act as a prooxidant and decrease growth of aggressive tumor xenografts in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(32):11105-11109.  (PubMed)

107.  Kuiper C, Molenaar IG, Dachs GU, Currie MJ, Sykes PH, Vissers MC. Low ascorbate levels are associated with increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity and an aggressive tumor phenotype in endometrial cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70(14):5749-5758.  (PubMed)

108.  Gao P, Zhang H, Dinavahi R, et al. HIF-dependent antitumorigenic effect of antioxidants in vivo. Cancer Cell. 2007;12(3):230-238.  (PubMed)

109.  Riordan HD, Casciari JJ, Gonzalez MJ, et al. A pilot clinical study of continuous intravenous ascorbate in terminal cancer patients. P R Health Sci J. 2005;24(4):269-276.  (PubMed)

110.  Hoffer LJ, Levine M, Assouline S, et al. Phase I clinical trial of i.v. ascorbic acid in advanced malignancy. Ann Oncol. 2008;19(11):1969-1974.  (PubMed)

111.  Monti DA, Mitchell E, Bazzan AJ, et al. Phase I evaluation of intravenous ascorbic acid in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29794.  (PubMed)

112.  Stephenson CM, Levin RD, Spector T, Lis CG. Phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous ascorbic acid in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;72(1):139-146.  (PubMed)

113.  Vollbracht C, Schneider B, Leendert V, Weiss G, Auerbach L, Beuth J. Intravenous vitamin C administration improves quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemo-/radiotherapy and aftercare: results of a retrospective, multicentre, epidemiological cohort study in Germany. In Vivo. 2011;25(6):983-990.  (PubMed)

114.  Park CH, Kimler BF, Yi SY, et al. Depletion of L-ascorbic acid alternating with its supplementation in the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. Eur J Haematol. 2009;83(2):108-118.  (PubMed)

115.  Klingelhoeffer C, Kammerer U, Koospal M, et al. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:61.  (PubMed)

116.  Hong SW, Lee SH, Moon JH, et al. SVCT-2 in breast cancer acts as an indicator for L-ascorbate treatment. Oncogene. 2013;32(12):1508-1517.  (PubMed)

117.  U.S. National Institutes of Health. ClinicalTrials.gov [Web page]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Accessed 9/16/09.

118.  Cabanillas F. Vitamin C and cancer: what can we conclude--1,609 patients and 33 years later? P R Health Sci J. 2010;29(3):215-217.  (PubMed)

119.  Pauling LC. Vitamin C and the Common Cold. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman; 1970.

120.  Hemila H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013;1:CD000980.  (PubMed)

121.  Hemila H. Vitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2013;3(6).  (PubMed)

122.  Cheng Y, Willett WC, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Weiss S, Hu H. Relation of nutrition to bone lead and blood lead levels in middle-aged to elderly men. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(12):1162-1174.  (PubMed)

123.  Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. JAMA. 1999;281(24):2289-2293.  (PubMed)

124.  Lee DH, Lim JS, Song K, Boo Y, Jacobs DR, Jr. Graded associations of blood lead and urinary cadmium concentrations with oxidative-stress-related markers in the U.S. population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(3):350-354.  (PubMed)

125.  Dawson EB, Evans DR, Harris WA, Teter MC, McGanity WJ. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the blood lead levels of smokers. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(2):166-170.  (PubMed)

126.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. 2009. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Accessed 11/7/09.

127.  Gregory JF, 3rd. Ascorbic acid bioavailability in foods and supplements. Nutr Rev. 1993;51(10):301-303.

128.  Johnston CS, Luo B. Comparison of the absorption and excretion of three commercially available sources of vitamin C. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94(7):779-781.

129.  Song J, Kwon O, Chen S, et al. Flavonoid inhibition of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) and glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), intestinal transporters for vitamin C and Glucose. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(18):15252-15260.  (PubMed)

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