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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin K


1.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

2.  Booth SL. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56.  (PubMed)

3.  Kidd PM. Vitamins D and K as pleiotropic nutrients: clinical importance to the skeletal and cardiovascular systems and preliminary evidence for synergy. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(3):199-222.  (PubMed)

4.  Nakagawa K, Hirota Y, Sawada N, et al. Identification of UBIAD1 as a novel human menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. Nature. 2010;468(7320):117-121.  (PubMed)

5.  Ferland G. Vitamin K. In: Erdman Jr. JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Ames: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012:230-247.

6.  Rishavy MA, Hallgren KW, Wilson LA, Usubalieva A, Runge KW, Berkner KL. The vitamin K oxidoreductase is a multimer that efficiently reduces vitamin K epoxide to hydroquinone to allow vitamin K-dependent protein carboxylation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288(44):31556-31566.  (PubMed)

7.  Tie JK, Jin DY, Straight DL, Stafford DW. Functional study of the vitamin K cycle in mammalian cells. Blood. 2011;117(10):2967-2974.  (PubMed)

8.  Olson RE. Vitamin K. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:363-380.

9.  Holmes MV, Hunt BJ, Shearer MJ. The role of dietary vitamin K in the management of oral vitamin K antagonists. Blood Rev. 2012;26(1):1-14.  (PubMed)

10.  Kramps M, Flanagan A, Smaldone A. The use of vitamin K supplementation to achieve INR stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2013;25(10):535-544.  (PubMed)

11.  Lam J, Schulman S, Witt DM, Vandvik PO, Qayyum F, Holbrook AM. Anticoagulation control with daily low-dose vitamin k to reduce clinically adverse outcomes and international normalized ratio variability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33(11):1184-1190.  (PubMed)

12.  Mahtani KR, Heneghan CJ, Nunan D, Roberts NW. Vitamin K for improved anticoagulation control in patients receiving warfarin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;5:CD009917.  (PubMed)

13.  Gundberg CM, Lian JB, Booth SL. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of osteocalcin: friend or foe? Adv Nutr. 2012;3(2):149-157.  (PubMed)

14.  Pierre-Jacques H, Glueck CJ, Mont MA, Hungerford DS. Familial heterozygous protein-S deficiency in a patient who had multifocal osteonecrosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79(7):1079-1084.  (PubMed)

15.  Rawat RS, Mehta Y, Arora D, Trehan N. Asymptomatic type B right atrial thrombus in a case with protein S deficiency. Ann Card Anaesth. 2014;17(3):237-239.  (PubMed)

16.  van der Meer JH, van der Poll T, van 't Veer C. TAM receptors, Gas6, and protein S: roles in inflammation and hemostasis. Blood. 2014;123(16):2460-2469.  (PubMed)

17.  Booth SL. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation. Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:89-110.  (PubMed)

18.  Boraldi F, Annovi G, Guerra D, et al. Fibroblast protein profile analysis highlights the role of oxidative stress and vitamin K recycling in the pathogenesis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2009;3(9):1084-1098.  (PubMed)

19.  Boraldi F, Garcia-Fernandez M, Paolinelli-Devincenzi C, et al. Ectopic calcification in beta-thalassemia patients is associated with increased oxidative stress and lower MGP carboxylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832(12):2077-2084.  (PubMed)

20.  Coutu DL, Wu JH, Monette A, Rivard GE, Blostein MD, Galipeau J. Periostin, a member of a novel family of vitamin K-dependent proteins, is expressed by mesenchymal stromal cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(26):17991-18001.  (PubMed)

21.  Viegas CS, Simes DC, Laize V, Williamson MK, Price PA, Cancela ML. Gla-rich protein (GRP), a new vitamin K-dependent protein identified from sturgeon cartilage and highly conserved in vertebrates. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(52):36655-36664.  (PubMed)

22.  Viegas CS, Cavaco S, Neves PL, et al. Gla-rich protein is a novel vitamin K-dependent protein present in serum that accumulates at sites of pathological calcifications. Am J Pathol. 2009;175(6):2288-2298.  (PubMed)

23.  Hakuno D, Kimura N, Yoshioka M, et al. Periostin advances atherosclerotic and rheumatic cardiac valve degeneration by inducing angiogenesis and MMP production in humans and rodents. J Clin Invest. 2010;120(7):2292-2306.  (PubMed)

24.  Kudo Y, Siriwardena BS, Hatano H, Ogawa I, Takata T. Periostin: novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cancer. Histol Histopathol. 2007;22(10):1167-1174.  (PubMed)

25.  Vanakker OM, Martin L, Schurgers LJ, et al. Low serum vitamin K in PXE results in defective carboxylation of mineralization inhibitors similar to the GGCX mutations in the PXE-like syndrome. Lab Invest. 2010;90(6):895-905.  (PubMed)

26.  Ferland G. Vitamin K and the nervous system: an overview of its actions. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(2):204-212.  (PubMed)

27.  Laurance S, Lemarie CA, Blostein MD. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (gas6) and vascular hemostasis. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(2):196-203.  (PubMed)

28.  Robins RS, Lemarie CA, Laurance S, Aghourian MN, Wu J, Blostein MD. Vascular Gas6 contributes to thrombogenesis and promotes tissue factor up-regulation after vessel injury in mice. Blood. 2013;121(4):692-699.  (PubMed)

29.  Rothlin CV, Leighton JA, Ghosh S. Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk Receptor Signaling in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colitis-associated Cancer. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(8):1472-1480.  (PubMed)

30.  Tjwa M, Moons L, Lutgens E. Pleiotropic role of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2009;20(5):386-392.  (PubMed)

31.  Jagannath VA, Fedorowicz Z, Thaker V, Chang AB. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;4:CD008482.  (PubMed)

32.  Nakajima S, Iijima H, Egawa S, et al. Association of vitamin K deficiency with bone metabolism and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Nutrition. 2011;27(10):1023-1028.  (PubMed)

33.  Nowak JK, Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk U, Landowski P, et al. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin K deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4768.  (PubMed)

34.  Shearer MJ. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in early infancy. Blood Rev. 2009;23(2):49-59.  (PubMed)

35.  American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 1):191-192.  (PubMed)

36.  Klebanoff MA, Read JS, Mills JL, Shiono PH. The risk of childhood cancer after neonatal exposure to vitamin K. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(13):905-908.  (PubMed)

37.  Ekelund H, Finnstrom O, Gunnarskog J, Kallen B, Larsson Y. Administration of vitamin K to newborn infants and childhood cancer. BMJ. 1993;307(6896):89-91.  (PubMed)

38.  Roman E, Fear NT, Ansell P, et al. Vitamin K and childhood cancer: analysis of individual patient data from six case-control studies. Br J Cancer. 2002;86(1):63-69.  (PubMed)

39.  Schulte R, Jordan LC, Morad A, Naftel RP, Wellons JC, 3rd, Sidonio R. Rise in late onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding in young infants because of omission or refusal of prophylaxis at birth. Pediatr Neurol. 2014;50(6):564-568.  (PubMed)

40.  Costakos DT, Greer FR, Love LA, Dahlen LR, Suttie JW. Vitamin K prophylaxis for premature infants: 1 mg versus 0.5 mg. Am J Perinatol. 2003;20(8):485-490.  (PubMed)

41.  Kumar D, Greer FR, Super DM, Suttie JW, Moore JJ. Vitamin K status of premature infants: implications for current recommendations. Pediatrics. 2001;108(5):1117-1122.  (PubMed)

42.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin K. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:162-196.  (National Academy Press)

43.  Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, Rockett H, Booth SL, Colditz GA. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(1):74-79.  (PubMed)

44.  Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5):1201-1208.  (PubMed)

45.  Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Charles P, et al. No effect of vitamin K1 intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(8):1122-1132.  (PubMed)

46.  McLean RR, Booth SL, Kiel DP, et al. Association of dietary and biochemical measures of vitamin K with quantitative ultrasound of the heel in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(4):600-607.  (PubMed)

47.  Macdonald HM, McGuigan FE, Lanham-New SA, Fraser WD, Ralston SH, Reid DM. Vitamin K1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish women: no evidence of gene-nutrient interaction with apolipoprotein E polymorphisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1513-1520.  (PubMed)

48.  Apalset EM, Gjesdal CG, Eide GE, Tell GS. Intake of vitamin K1 and K2 and risk of hip fractures: The Hordaland Health Study. Bone. 2011;49(5):990-995.  (PubMed)

49.  Torbergsen AC, Watne LO, Wyller TB, et al. Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D are independently and synergistically associated with a risk for hip fracture in an elderly population: A case control study. Clin Nutr. 2014; pii: S0261-5614(14)00041-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.01.016. [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

50.  Booth SL, Mayer J. Warfarin use and fracture risk. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(1):20-22.  (PubMed)

51.  Tsugawa N, Shiraki M, Suhara Y, et al. Low plasma phylloquinone concentration is associated with high incidence of vertebral fracture in Japanese women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26(1):79-85.  (PubMed)

52.  Ikeda Y, Iki M, Morita A, et al. Intake of fermented soybeans, natto, is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study. J Nutr. 2006;136(5):1323-1328.  (PubMed)

53.  Fujita Y, Iki M, Tamaki J, et al. Association between vitamin K intake from fermented soybeans, natto, and bone mineral density in elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(2):705-714.  (PubMed)

54.  Kaneki M, Hodges SJ, Hosoi T, et al. Japanese fermented soybean food as the major determinant of the large geographic difference in circulating levels of vitamin K2: possible implications for hip-fracture risk. Nutrition. 2001;17(4):315-321.  (PubMed)

55.  Szulc P, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. J Clin Invest. 1993;91(4):1769-1774.  (PubMed)

56.  Vergnaud P, Garnero P, Meunier PJ, Breart G, Kamihagi K, Delmas PD. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(3):719-724.  (PubMed)

57.  Shearer MJ. The roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Proc Nutr Soc. 1997;56(3):915-937.  (PubMed)

58.  O'Connor E, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen J, Cashman KD. Vitamin D-vitamin K interaction: effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, in Danish girls. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(8):1091-1095.  (PubMed)

59.  Kanellakis S, Moschonis G, Tenta R, et al. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;90(4):251-262.  (PubMed)

60.  Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo ME, Paterson CR, et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(4):509-519.  (PubMed)

61.  Braam LA, Knapen MH, Geusens P, et al. Vitamin K1 supplementation retards bone loss in postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years of age. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73(1):21-26.  (PubMed)

62.  Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256-1261.  (PubMed)

63.  Tamura T, Morgan SL, Takimoto H. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(1):94; author reply 94-95.  (PubMed)

64.  Inoue T, Fujita T, Kishimoto H, et al. Randomized controlled study on the prevention of osteoporotic fractures (OF study): a phase IV clinical study of 15-mg menatetrenone capsules. J Bone Miner Metab. 2009;27(1):66-75.  (PubMed)

65.  Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(7):963-972.  (PubMed)

66.  Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, et al. Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density, or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24(6):983-991.  (PubMed)

67.  Emaus N, Gjesdal CG, Almas B, et al. Vitamin K2 supplementation does not influence bone loss in early menopausal women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21(10):1731-1740.  (PubMed)

68.  Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Smit E, Vermeer C, Theuwissen E. Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(9):2499-2507.  (PubMed)

69.  Jamal SA, Browner WS, Bauer DC, Cummings SR. Warfarin use and risk for osteoporosis in elderly women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(10):829-832.  (PubMed)

70.  Caraballo PJ, Heit JA, Atkinson EJ, et al. Long-term use of oral anticoagulants and the risk of fracture. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(15):1750-1756.  (PubMed)

71.  Gage BF, Birman-Deych E, Radford MJ, Nilasena DS, Binder EF. Risk of osteoporotic fracture in elderly patients taking warfarin: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation 2. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(2):241-246.  (PubMed)

72.  Caraballo PJ, Gabriel SE, Castro MR, Atkinson EJ, Melton LJ, 3rd. Changes in bone density after exposure to oral anticoagulants: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9(5):441-448.  (PubMed)

73.  Fusaro M, Crepaldi G, Maggi S, et al. Bleeding, vertebral fractures and vascular calcifications in patients treated with warfarin: hope for lower risks with alternative therapies. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2011;9(6):763-769.  (PubMed)

74.  Cheung CL, Sahni S, Cheung BM, Sing CW, Wong IC. Vitamin K intake and mortality in people with chronic kidney disease from NHANES III. Clin Nutr. 2014; pii: S0261-5614(14)00086-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.011. [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

75.  Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvado J, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, et al. Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk. J Nutr. 2014;144(5):743-750.  (PubMed)

76.  Vissers LE, Dalmeijer GW, Boer JM, Monique Verschuren WM, van der Schouw YT, Beulens JW. Intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones and risk of stroke. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(6):e000455.  (PubMed)

77.  Rees K, Guraewal S, Wong YL, et al. Is vitamin K consumption associated with cardio-metabolic disorders? A systematic review. Maturitas. 2010;67(2):121-128.  (PubMed)

78.  Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(7):504-510.  (PubMed)

79.  Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004;134(11):3100-3105.  (PubMed)

80.  Otsuka F, Sakakura K, Yahagi K, Joner M, Virmani R. Has our understanding of calcification in human coronary atherosclerosis progressed? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34(4):724-736.  (PubMed)

81.  Rennenberg RJ, Kessels AG, Schurgers LJ, van Engelshoven JM, de Leeuw PW, Kroon AA. Vascular calcifications as a marker of increased cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5(1):185-197.  (PubMed)

82.  Jie KS, Bots ML, Vermeer C, Witteman JC, Grobbee DE. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Atherosclerosis. 1995;116(1):117-123.  (PubMed)

83.  Villines TC, Hatzigeorgiou C, Feuerstein IM, O'Malley PG, Taylor AJ. Vitamin K1 intake and coronary calcification. Coron Artery Dis. 2005;16(3):199-203.  (PubMed)

84.  Maas AH, van der Schouw YT, Beijerinck D, et al. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas. 2007;56(3):273-279.  (PubMed)

85.  Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203(2):489-493.  (PubMed)

86.  Borras T, Comes N. Evidence for a calcification process in the trabecular meshwork. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88(4):738-746.  (PubMed)

87.  Schurgers LJ, Uitto J, Reutelingsperger CP. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of matrix Gla-protein: a crucial switch to control ectopic mineralization. Trends Mol Med. 2013;19(4):217-226.  (PubMed)

88.  Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Bielak LF, Levin AM, et al. Matrix gla protein gene polymorphism is associated with increased coronary artery calcification progression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33(3):645-651.  (PubMed)

89.  Herrmann SM, Whatling C, Brand E, et al. Polymorphisms of the human matrix gla protein (MGP) gene, vascular calcification, and myocardial infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20(11):2386-2393.  (PubMed)

90.  Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Knapen MH, et al. Novel conformation-specific antibodies against matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein: undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein as marker for vascular calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25(8):1629-1633.  (PubMed)

91.  van den Heuvel EG, van Schoor NM, Lips P, et al. Circulating uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein, a marker of vitamin K status, as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Maturitas. 2014;77(2):137-141.  (PubMed)

92.  Mayer O, Jr., Seidlerova J, Bruthans J, et al. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein is associated with mortality risk in patients with chronic stable vascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2014;235(1):162-168.  (PubMed)

93.  Shea MK, O'Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U, et al. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1799-1807.  (PubMed)

94.  Shea MK, O'Donnell CJ, Vermeer C, et al. Circulating uncarboxylated matrix gla protein is associated with vitamin K nutritional status, but not coronary artery calcium, in older adults. J Nutr. 2011;141(8):1529-1534.  (PubMed)

95.  Chatrou ML, Winckers K, Hackeng TM, Reutelingsperger CP, Schurgers LJ. Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists. Blood Rev. 2012;26(4):155-166.  (PubMed)

96.  Booth SL, Suttie JW. Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K. J Nutr. 1998;128(5):785-788.  (PubMed)

97.  Beulens JW, Booth SL, van den Heuvel EG, Stoecklin E, Baka A, Vermeer C. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K(2)) in human health. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1357-1368.  (PubMed)

98. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR. Vitamin K. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference Inc.; 2008:708-7123.

99.  Traber MG. Vitamin E and K interactions--a 50-year-old problem. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(11):624-629.  (PubMed)

100.  Booth SL, Golly I, Sacheck JM, et al. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):143-148.  (PubMed)

101.  Pastori D, Carnevale R, Cangemi R, et al. Vitamin E serum levels and bleeding risk in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a retrospective cohort study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(6):e000364.  (PubMed)

102.  Shearer MJ, Newman P. Recent trends in the metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K with special reference to vitamin K cycling and MK-4 biosynthesis. J Lipid Res. 2014;55(3):345-362.  (PubMed)

103.  Thorp JA, Gaston L, Caspers DR, Pal ML. Current concepts and controversies in the use of vitamin K. Drugs. 1995;49(3):376-387.  (PubMed)

104.  Reiffel JA. An important indirect drug interaction between dronedarone and warfarin that may be extrapolated to other drugs that can alter gastrointestinal function. Am Heart J. 2011;161(2):e5; author reply e7.  (PubMed)

105.  Shirolkar SC, Fiuzat M, Becker RC. Dronedarone and vitamin K antagonists: a review of drug-drug interactions. Am Heart J. 2010;160(4):577-582.  (PubMed)

106.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc.; 2001.