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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin K


1.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

2.  Shearer MJ. Vitamin K. Lancet. 1995;345(8944):229-234. 

3.  Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC. Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Blood. 1999;93(6):1798-1808.  (PubMed)

4.  Ferland G. Vitamin K. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:220-230.

5.  Shearer MJ. The roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Proc Nutr Soc. 1997;56(3):915-937.

6.  Olson RE. Vitamin K. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:363-380.

7.  Booth SL, Centurelli MA. Vitamin K: a practical guide to the dietary management of patients on warfarin. Nutr Rev. 1999;57(9 Pt 1):288-296.  (PubMed)

8.  Booth SL. Skeletal functions of vitamin K-dependent proteins: not just for clotting anymore. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(7):282-284.  (PubMed)

9.  Suttie JW. Vitamin K. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:412-425.

10.  Ferland G. The vitamin K-dependent proteins: an update. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(8):223-230.  (PubMed)

11.  Tsaioun KI. Vitamin K-dependent proteins in the developing and aging nervous system. Nutr Rev. 1999;57(8):231-240.  (PubMed)

12.  Maree AO, Jneid H, Palacios IF, Rosenfield K, MacRae CA, Fitzgerald DJ. Growth arrest specific gene (GAS) 6 modulates platelet thrombus formation and vascular wall homeostasis and represents an attractive drug target. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13(26):2656-2661.  (PubMed)

13.  Thorp JA, Gaston L, Caspers DR, Pal ML. Current concepts and controversies in the use of vitamin K. Drugs. 1995;49(3):376-387.  (PubMed)

14.  Klebanoff MA, Read JS, Mills JL, Shiono PH. The risk of childhood cancer after neonatal exposure to vitamin K. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(13):905-908.  (PubMed)

15.  Ekelund H, Finnstrom O, Gunnarskog J, Kallen B, Larsson Y. Administration of vitamin K to newborn infants and childhood cancer. BMJ. 1993;307(6896):89-91.  (PubMed)

16.  Roman E, Fear NT, Ansell P, et al. Vitamin K and childhood cancer: analysis of individual patient data from six case-control studies. Br J Cancer. 2002;86(1):63-69.  (PubMed)

17.  Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 1):191-192.  (PubMed)

18.  Costakos DT, Greer FR, Love LA, Dahlen LR, Suttie JW. Vitamin K prophylaxis for premature infants: 1 mg versus 0.5 mg. Am J Perinatol. 2003;20(8):485-490.  (PubMed)

19.  Kumar D, Greer FR, Super DM, Suttie JW, Moore JJ. Vitamin K status of premature infants: implications for current recommendations. Pediatrics. 2001;108(5):1117-1122.  (PubMed)

20.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin K. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:162-196.  (National Academy Press)

21.  Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, Rockett H, Booth SL, Colditz GA. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(1):74-79.  (PubMed)

22.  Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5):1201-1208.  (PubMed)

23.  Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Charles P, et al. No effect of vitamin K1 intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(8):1122-1132.  (PubMed)

24.  McLean RR, Booth SL, Kiel DP, et al. Association of dietary and biochemical measures of vitamin K with quantitative ultrasound of the heel in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(4):600-607.  (PubMed)

25.  Booth SL, Mayer J. Warfarin use and fracture risk. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(1):20-22.  (PubMed)

26.  Booth SL, Suttie JW. Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K. J Nutr. 1998;128(5):785-788.  (PubMed)

27.  Szulc P, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. J Clin Invest. 1993;91(4):1769-1774.  (PubMed)

28.  Vergnaud P, Garnero P, Meunier PJ, Breart G, Kamihagi K, Delmas PD. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(3):719-724.  (PubMed)

29.  Jamal SA, Browner WS, Bauer DC, Cummings SR. Warfarin use and risk for osteoporosis in elderly women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(10):829-832.  (PubMed)

30.  Caraballo PJ, Heit JA, Atkinson EJ, et al. Long-term use of oral anticoagulants and the risk of fracture. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(15):1750-1756.  (PubMed)

31.  Gage BF, Birman-Deych E, Radford MJ, Nilasena DS, Binder EF. Risk of osteoporotic fracture in elderly patients taking warfarin: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation 2. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(2):241-246.  (PubMed)

32.  Caraballo PJ, Gabriel SE, Castro MR, Atkinson EJ, Melton LJ, 3rd. Changes in bone density after exposure to oral anticoagulants: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9(5):441-448.  (PubMed)

33.  Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density and incidence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a comparison with the effect of etidronate. J Orthop Sci. 2001;6(6):487-492.  (PubMed)

34.  Vermeer C, Jie KS, Knapen MH. Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1995;15:1-22.  (PubMed)

35.  Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256-1261.  (PubMed)

36.  Tamura T, Morgan SL, Takimoto H. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(1):94; author reply 94-95.  (PubMed)

37.  Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(7):963-972.  (PubMed)

38.  Braam LA, Knapen MH, Geusens P, et al. Vitamin K1 supplementation retards bone loss in postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years of age. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73(1):21-26.  (PubMed)

39.  Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo ME, Paterson CR, et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(4):509-519.  (PubMed)

40.  Booth SL, Dallal G, Shea MK, Gundberg C, Peterson JW, Dawson-Hughes B. Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(4):1217-1223.  (PubMed)

41.  Villines TC, Hatzigeorgiou C, Feuerstein IM, O'Malley PG, Taylor AJ. Vitamin K1 intake and coronary calcification. Coron Artery Dis. 2005;16(3):199-203.  (PubMed)

42.  Maas AH, van der Schouw YT, Beijerinck D, et al. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas. 2007;56(3):273-279.  (PubMed)

43.  Jie KS, Bots ML, Vermeer C, Witteman JC, Grobbee DE. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Atherosclerosis. 1995;116(1):117-123.  (PubMed)

44.  Schurgers LJ, Dissel PE, Spronk HM, et al. Role of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular calcification. Z Kardiol. 2001;90 Suppl 3:57-63.  (PubMed)

45.  Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Knapen MH, et al. Novel conformation-specific antibodies against matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein: undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein as marker for vascular calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25(8):1629-1633.  (PubMed)

46.  Cranenburg EC, Vermeer C, Koos R, et al. The Circulating Inactive Form of Matrix Gla Protein (ucMGP) as a Biomarker for Cardiovascular Calcification. J Vasc Res. 2008;45(5):427-436.  (PubMed)

47.  Booth SL, Lichtenstein AH, O'Brien-Morse M, et al. Effects of a hydrogenated form of vitamin K on bone formation and resorption. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(6):783-790.  (PubMed)

48.  Suttie JW. The importance of menaquinones in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr. 1995;15:399-417.  (PubMed)

49.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

50.  National Institutes of Health. Vitamin K and Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women. ClinicalTrials.gov [Web page]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00062595?order=11. Accessed January 21, 2008.

51.  Booth SL, Golly I, Sacheck JM, et al. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):143-148.  (PubMed)

52.  Corrigan JJ, Jr., Marcus FI. Coagulopathy associated with vitamin E ingestion. JAMA. 1974;230(9):1300-1301.