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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Iron


1.  Wood RJ, Ronnenberg AG. Iron. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ,eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:248-270.

2.  Beard JL, Dawson HD. Iron. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:275-334.

3.  Yip R, Dallman PR. Iron. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:277-292.

4.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

5.  Ivan M, Kondo K, Yang H, et al. HIFalpha targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing. Science. 2001;292(5516):464-468.  (PubMed)

6.  Jaakkola P, Mole DR, Tian YM, et al. Targeting of HIF-alpha to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex by O2-regulated prolyl hydroxylation. Science. 2001;292(5516):468-472.  (PubMed)

7.  Fairbanks VF. Iron in Medicine and Nutrition. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:193-221.

8.  Wallander ML, Leibold EA, Eisenstein RS. Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763(7):668-689.  (PubMed)

9.  Anderson GJ, Darshan D, Wilkins SJ, Frazer DM. Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis: how the body responds to changes in iron demand. Biometals. 2007;20(3-4):665-674.  (PubMed)

10.  Fleming MD. The regulation of hepcidin and its effects on systemic and cellular iron metabolism. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2008:151-158.  (PubMed)

11.  Nicolas G, Bennoun M, Devaux I, et al. Lack of hepcidin gene expression and severe tissue iron overload in upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(15):8780-8785.  (PubMed)

12.  Nicolas G, Bennoun M, Porteu A, et al. Severe iron deficiency anemia in transgenic mice expressing liver hepcidin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(7):4596-4601.  (PubMed)

13.  Muckenthaler MU. Fine tuning of hepcidin expression by positive and negative regulators. Cell Metab. 2008;8(1):1-3.  (PubMed)

14.  Suharno D, West CE, Muhilal, Karyadi D, Hautvast JG. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet. 1993;342(8883):1325-1328  (PubMed)

15.  Vulpe CD, Kuo YM, Murphy TL, et al. Hephaestin, a ceruloplasmin homologue implicated in intestinal iron transport, is defective in the sla mouse. Nat Genet. 1999;21(2):195-199.  (PubMed)

16.  Turnlund JR. Copper. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ,eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:286-299.

17.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Iron. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:290-393.  (National Academy Press)

18.  Lynch SR. Interaction of iron with other nutrients. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(4):102-110.  (PubMed)

19.  Lee GR. Disorders of iron metabolism and heme synthesis. In: Lee GR, Foerster J, Lukens J, et al., eds. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1999:979-1070.

20.  Beard JL. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):568S-579S.  (PubMed)

21.  Dewar DH, Ciclitira PJ. Clinical features and diagnosis of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(4 Suppl 1):S19-24.  (PubMed)

22.  Sherman PM, Macarthur C. Current controversies associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in the pediatric population. Front Biosci. 2001;6:E187-192.  (PubMed)

23.  Bloomberg RD, Fleishman A, Nalle JE, Herron DM, Kini S. Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery: what have we learned? Obes Surg. 2005;15(2):145-154.  (PubMed)

24.  Thomas DG, Grant SL, Aubuchon-Endsley NL. The role of iron in neurocognitive development. Dev Neuropsychol. 2009;34(2):196-222.  (PubMed)

25.  McCann JC, Ames BN. An overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(4):931-945.  (PubMed)

26.  Sachdev H, Gera T, Nestel P. Effect of iron supplementation on mental and motor development in children: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(2):117-132.  (PubMed)

27.  Grantham-McGregor S, Ani C. A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):649S-666S.  (PubMed)

28.  Lozoff B. Iron deficiency and child development. Food Nutr Bull. 2007;28(4 Suppl):S560-571.  (PubMed)

29.  Wright RO. The role of iron therapy in childhood plumbism. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1999;11(3):255-258.  (PubMed)

30. Rasmussen K. Is There a Causal Relationship between Iron Deficiency or Iron-Deficiency Anemia and Weight at Birth, Length of Gestation and Perinatal Mortality? J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):590S-601S.  (PubMed)

31.  Yip R. Significance of an abnormally low or high hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy: special consideration of iron nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(1 Suppl):272S-279S.  (PubMed)

32.  Beard J. Iron. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:430-444.

33.  Oppenheimer SJ. Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease. J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):616S-633S.  (PubMed)

34.  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Restless Legs Syndrome. Restless legs syndrome: detection and management in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62(1):108-114.  (PubMed)

35.  Earley CJ, Connor JR, Beard JL, Malecki EA, Epstein DK, Allen RP. Abnormalities in CSF concentrations of ferritin and transferrin in restless legs syndrome. Neurology. 2000;54(8):1698-1700.  (PubMed)

36.  Allen RP, Barker PB, Wehrl F, Song HK, Earley CJ. MRI measurement of brain iron in patients with restless legs syndrome. Neurology. 2001;56(2):263-265.  (PubMed)

37.  Minerals. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:27-51.

38.  Janssen MC, Swinkels DW. Hereditary haemochromatosis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;23(2):171-183.  (PubMed)

39.  Feder JN, Gnirke A, Thomas W, et al. A novel MHC class I-like gene is mutated in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. Nat Genet. 1996;13(4):399-408.  (PubMed)

40.  Franchini M, Veneri D. Recent advances in hereditary hemochromatosis. Ann Hematol. 2005;84(6):347-352.  (PubMed)

41.  Ayonrinde OT, Milward EA, Chua AC, Trinder D, Olynyk JK. Clinical perspectives on hereditary hemochromatosis. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2008;45(5):451-484.  (PubMed)

42.  Wallace DF, Subramaniam VN. Non-HFE haemochromatosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(35):4690-4698.  (PubMed)

43.  Pietrangelo A. Hemochromatosis 1998: is one gene enough? J Hepatol. 1998;29(3):502-509.

44.  de Valk B, Marx JJ. Iron, atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(14):1542-1548.  (PubMed)

45.  Danesh J, Appleby P. Coronary heart disease and iron status: meta-analyses of prospective studies. Circulation. 1999;99(7):852-854.  (PubMed)

46.  Ascherio A, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ. Dietary iron intake and risk of coronary disease among men. Circulation. 1994;89(3):969-974.  (PubMed)

47.  Klipstein-Grobusch K, Grobbee DE, den Breeijen JH, Boeing H, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(5):421-428.  (PubMed)

48.  van der AD, Peeters PH, Grobbee DE, Marx JJ, van der Schouw YT. Dietary haem iron and coronary heart disease in women. Eur Heart J. 2005;26(3):257-262.  (PubMed)

49.  Kato I, Dnistrian AM, Schwartz M, et al. Iron intake, body iron stores and colorectal cancer risk in women: a nested case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1999;80(5):693-698.  (PubMed)

50.  Wurzelmann JI, Silver A, Schreinemachers DM, Sandler RS, Everson RB. Iron intake and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5(7):503-507.  (PubMed)

51.  World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, D.C.: AICR; 2007.

52.  Bostick R. Diet and nutrition in the prevention of colon cancer. In: Bendich A, Deckelbaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press, Inc; 2001:57-95.

53.  Ford ES, Cogswell ME. Diabetes and serum ferritin concentration among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(12):1978-1983.  (PubMed)

54.  Hughes K, Choo M, Kuperan P, Ong CN, Aw TC. Cardiovascular risk factors in non-insulin-dependent diabetics compared to non-diabetic controls: a population-based survey among Asians in Singapore. Atherosclerosis. 1998;136(1):25-31.  (PubMed)

55.  Thomas MC, MacIsaac RJ, Tsalamandris C, Jerums G. Elevated iron indices in patients with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2004;21(7):798-802.  (PubMed)

56.  Hernandez C, Lecube A, Carrera A, Simo R. Soluble transferrin receptors and ferritin in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005;22(1):97-101.  (PubMed)

57.  Jiang R, Manson JE, Meigs JB, Ma J, Rifai N, Hu FB. Body iron stores in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy women. JAMA. 2004;291(6):711-717.  (PubMed)

58.  Swaminathan S, Fonseca VA, Alam MG, Shah SV. The role of iron in diabetes and its complications. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(7):1926-1933.  (PubMed)

59.  Jehn M, Clark JM, Guallar E. Serum ferritin and risk of the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(10):2422-2428.  (PubMed)

60.  Sun L, Franco OH, Hu FB, et al. Ferritin concentrations, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly chinese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4690-4696.  (PubMed)

61.  Lecube A, Hernandez C, Pelegri D, Simo R. Factors accounting for high ferritin levels in obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(11):1665-1669.  (PubMed)

62.  Eshed I, Elis A, Lishner M. Plasma ferritin and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Endocr Res. 2001;27(1-2):91-97.  (PubMed)

63.  Pinero DJ, Hu J, Connor JR. Alterations in the interaction between iron regulatory proteins and their iron responsive element in normal and Alzheimer's diseased brains. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2000;46(4):761-776.  (PubMed)

64.  Altamura S, Muckenthaler MU. Iron toxicity in diseases of aging: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and atherosclerosis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16(4):879-895.  (PubMed)

65.  Sayre LM, Perry G, Atwood CS, Smith MA. The role of metals in neurodegenerative diseases. Cell Mol Biol. 2000;46(4):731-741.  (PubMed)

66.  Benarroch EE. Brain iron homeostasis and neurodegenerative disease. Neurology. 2009;72(16):1436-1440.  (PubMed)

67.  Hendler SS, Rorvik D, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference Inc.; 2008.

68.  Fleming DJ, Jacques PF, Tucker KL, et al. Iron status of the free-living, elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort: an iron-replete population with a high prevalence of elevated iron stores. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(3):638-646.  (PubMed)