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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Zinc


1.  Prasad AS, Halsted JA, Nadimi M. Syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypogonadism, dwarfism, and geophagia. Am J Med. 1961;31:532-546.

2.  Prasad AS. Zinc deficiency in humans: a neglected problem. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):542-543.

3.  Cousins RJ. Zinc. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:445-457.

4.  McCall KA, Huang C, Fierke CA. Function and mechanism of zinc metalloenzymes. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1437S-1446S.  (PubMed)

5.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Zinc. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:442-501.  (National Academy Press)

6.  King JC, Cousins RJ. Zinc. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:271-285.

7.  O'Dell BL. Role of zinc in plasma membrane function. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1432S-1436S.  (PubMed)

8.  Truong-Tran AQ, Ho LH, Chai F, Zalewski PD. Cellular zinc fluxes and the regulation of apoptosis/gene-directed cell death. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1459S-1466S.  (PubMed)

9.  Sandstrom B. Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. Br J Nutr. 2001;85 Suppl 2:S181-185.  (PubMed)

10.  O'Brien KO, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, Wen J, Abrams SA. Prenatal iron supplements impair zinc absorption in pregnant Peruvian women. J Nutr. 2000;130(9):2251-2255.  (PubMed)

11.  Fung EB, Ritchie LD, Woodhouse LR, Roehl R, King JC. Zinc absorption in women during pregnancy and lactation: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(1):80-88.  (PubMed)

12.  Wood RJ, Zheng JJ. High dietary calcium intakes reduce zinc absorption and balance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(6):1803-1809.  (PubMed)

13.  McKenna AA, Ilich JZ, Andon MB, Wang C, Matkovic V. Zinc balance in adolescent females consuming a low- or high-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5):1460-1464.  (PubMed)

14.  Hunt JR, Beiseigel JM. Dietary calcium does not exacerbate phytate inhibition of zinc absorption by women from conventional diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(3):839-843.  (PubMed)

15.  Kauwell GP, Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd, Bowling DW, Cousins RJ. Zinc status is not adversely affected by folic acid supplementation and zinc intake does not impair folate utilization in human subjects. J Nutr. 1995;125(1):66-72.  (PubMed)

16.  Boron B, Hupert J, Barch DH, et al. Effect of zinc deficiency on hepatic enzymes regulating vitamin A status. J Nutr. 1988;118(8):995-1001.  (PubMed)

17.  Christian P, West KP, Jr. Interactions between zinc and vitamin A: an update. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):435S-441S.  (PubMed)

18.  Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1344S-1349S.  (PubMed)

19.  Prasad AS. Discovery of human zinc deficiency: 50 years later. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26(2-3):66-69.  (PubMed)

20.  Prasad AS. Zinc deficiency. BMJ. 2003;326(7386):409-410.  (PubMed)

21.  King JC. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):679S-684S.  (PubMed)

22.  Fischer Walker CL, Ezzati M, & Black RE. Global and regional child mortality and burden of disease attributable to zinc deficiency. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(5):591-597.  (PubMed)

23.  International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group, Brown KH, Rivera JA, et al. International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) technical document #1. Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food Nutr Bull. 2004;25(1 Suppl 2):S99-203.  (PubMed)

24.  Krebs NF. Update on zinc deficiency and excess in clinical pediatric practice. Ann Nutr Metabol. 2013;62 Suppl 1:19-29.  (PubMed)

25.  Gibson RS, Hess SY, Hotz C, & Brown KH. Indicators of zinc status at the population level: a review of the evidence. Br J Nutr. 2008;99 Suppl 3:S14-23.  (PubMed)

26.  Walravens PA, Hambidge KM, Koepfer DM. Zinc supplementation in infants with a nutritional pattern of failure to thrive: a double-blind, controlled study. Pediatrics. 1989;83(4):532-538.  (PubMed)

27.  Hambidge M, Krebs N. Zinc and growth. In: Roussel AM, ed. Trace elements in man and animals 10: Proceedings of the tenth international symposium on trace elements in man and animals. New York: Plenum Press; 2000:977-980.

28.  Brown KH, Peerson JM, Baker SK, Hess SY. Preventive zinc supplementation among infants, preschoolers, and older prepubertal children. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(1 Suppl):S12-40.  (PubMed)

29.  Imdad A, Bhutta ZA. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool. BMC public health. 2011;11 Suppl 3:S22.  (PubMed)

30.  MacDonald RS. The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1500S-1508S.  (PubMed)

31.  Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Shankar AH, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):499S-508S.  (PubMed)

32.  Sandstead HH, Penland JG, Alcock NW, et al. Effects of repletion with zinc and other micronutrients on neuropsychologic performance and growth of Chinese children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):470S-475S.  (PubMed)

33.  Black MM. Zinc deficiency and child development. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):464S-469S.  (PubMed)

34.  Gogia S, Sachdev HS. Zinc supplementation for mental and motor development in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD007991.  (PubMed)

35.  Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Campa A. Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1421S-1423S.  (PubMed)

36.  Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol Med. 2008;14(5-6):353-357.  (PubMed)

37.  Prasad AS. Zinc: role in immunity, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12(6):646-652.  (PubMed)

38.  Prasad AS. Clinical, immunological, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc. Exp Gerontol. 2008;43(5):370-377.  (PubMed)

39.  Shankar, A.H. & Prasad, A.S. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):447S-463S.  (PubMed)  

40.  Boschi-Pinto C, Velebit L, Shibuya K. Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(9):710-717.  (PubMed)

41.  Wapnir RA. Zinc deficiency, malnutrition and the gastrointestinal tract. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1388S-1392S.  (PubMed)

42.  Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(6):1516-1522.  (PubMed)

43.  Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. Micronutrients and diarrheal disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S73-77.  (PubMed)

44.  Aggarwal R, Sentz J, Miller MA. Role of zinc administration in prevention of childhood diarrhea and respiratory illnesses: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2007;119(6):1120-1130.  (PubMed)

45.  Lazzerini M, Ronfani L. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;6:CD005436.  (PubMed)

46.  The United Nations Children's Fund/World Health Organization. WHO/UNICEF Joint Statement: Clinical Management of Acute Diarrhoea. Geneva; New York; 2004:1-8.  Available at: http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_21433.html

47.  Bhutta ZA, Black RE, Brown KH, et al. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zinc Investigators' Collaborative Group. J Pediatr. 1999;135(6):689-697.  (PubMed)

48.  Lassi ZS, Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD005978.  (PubMed)

49.  Natchu UC, Fataki MR, Fawzi WW. Zinc as an adjunct for childhood pneumonia - interpreting early results. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(7):398-405.  (PubMed)

50.  Basnet S, Shrestha PS, Sharma A, et al. A randomized controlled trial of zinc as adjuvant therapy for severe pneumonia in young children. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):701-708.  (PubMed)

51.  Shankar AH. Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. J Infect Dis. 2000;182 Suppl 1:S37-53.  (PubMed)

52. Muller O, Becher H, van Zweeden AB, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2001;322(7302):1567.  (PubMed)

53.  Effect of zinc on the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(4):805-812.  (PubMed)

54.  Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on mortality in children aged 1-48 months: a community-based randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9565):927-934.  (PubMed)

55.  Wong CP, Ho E. Zinc and its role in age-related inflammation and immune dysfunction. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56(1):77-87.  (PubMed)

56.  Salgueiro MJ, Zubillaga M, Lysionek A, et al. Zinc status and immune system relationship: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;76(3):193-205.  (PubMed)

57.  Fortes C, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, et al. The effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on immune response in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(1):19-26.  (PubMed)

58.  Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, et al. Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):837-844.  (PubMed)

59.  Shah D, Sachdev HP. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(1):15-30.  (PubMed)

60.  Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Figueroa A, Leon Z. Maternal zinc supplementation does not affect size at birth or pregnancy duration in Peru. J Nutr. 1999;129(8):1563-1568.  (PubMed)

61.  Osendarp SJ, van Raaij JM, Arifeen SE, Wahed M, Baqui AH, Fuchs GJ. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome in Bangladeshi urban poor. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1):114-119.  (PubMed)

62.  Mori R, Ota E, Middleton P, et al. (2012) Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD000230.  (PubMed)

63.  Jackson JL, Lesho E, Peterson C. Zinc and the common cold: a meta-analysis revisited. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1512S-1515S.  (PubMed)

64.  Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, Beck FW, Chandrasekar PH. Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133(4):245-252.  (PubMed)

65.  Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(5):1202-1208.  (PubMed)

66.  Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;2:CD001364.  (PubMed)

67.  Science M, Johnstone J, Roth DE, Guyatt G, Loeb M. Zinc for the treatment of the common cold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2012;184(10):E551-561.  (PubMed)

68.  Hemila H. Zinc lozenges may shorten the duration of colds: a systematic review. Open Respir Med J. 2011;5:51-58.  (PubMed)

69.  Eby GA, 3rd. Zinc lozenges as cure for the common cold--a review and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2010;74(3):482-492.  (PubMed)

70.  Mossad SB. Effect of zincum gluconicum nasal gel on the duration and symptom severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy adults. QJM. 2003;96(1):35-43.  (PubMed)

71.  Hirt M, Nobel S, Barron E. Zinc nasal gel for the treatment of common cold symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ear Nose Throat J. 2000;79(10):778-780, 782.  (PubMed)

72.  Turner RB. Ineffectiveness of intranasal zinc gluconate for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(11):1865-1870.  (PubMed)

73.  Belongia EA, Berg R, Liu K. A randomized trial of zinc nasal spray for the treatment of upper respiratory illness in adults. Am J Med. 2001;111(2):103-108.  (PubMed)

74.  Eby GA, Halcomb WW. Ineffectiveness of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges in common-cold treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12(1):34-38.  (PubMed)

75.  DeCook CA, Hirsch AR. Anosmia due to inhalational zinc: a case report. Chem Senses. 2000;25(5):659.

76.  VandenLangenberg GM, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein R, Klein BE, Brady WE, Palta M. Associations between antioxidant and zinc intake and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(2):204-214.  (PubMed)

77.  Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K, Leeder SR. Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(4):761-767.  (PubMed)

78.  Cho E, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, et al. Prospective study of zinc intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Ann Epidemiol. 2001;11(5):328-336.  (PubMed)

79.  van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA. 2005;294(24):3101-3107.  (PubMed)

80.  Tan JS, Wang JJ, Flood V, et al. Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(2):334-341.  (PubMed)

81.  Newsome DA, Swartz M, Leone NC, Elston RC, Miller E. Oral zinc in macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106(2):192-198.  (PubMed)

82.  Stur M, Tittl M, Reitner A, Meisinger V. Oral zinc and the second eye in age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37(7):1225-1235.  (PubMed)

83.  A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(10):1417-1436.  (PubMed)

84.  Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Research Group. Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;309(19):2005-2015.  (PubMed)

85.  Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD000254.  (PubMed)

86.  Evans J. Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eye. 2008;22(6):751-760.  (PubMed)

87.  Newsome DA. A randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a novel zinc-monocysteine compound in age-related macular degeneration. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33(7):591-598.  (PubMed)

88.  Evans JR, Lawrenson JG. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;6:CD000253.  (PubMed)

89.  Blostein-Fujii A, DiSilvestro RA, Frid D, Katz C, Malarkey W. Short-term zinc supplementation in women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects on plasma 5'-nucleotidase activities, insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and lipoprotein oxidation rates in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(3):639-642.  (PubMed)

90.  Cunningham JJ, Fu A, Mearkle PL, Brown RG. Hyperzincuria in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: concurrent zinc status and the effect of high-dose zinc supplementation. Metabolism. 1994;43(12):1558-1562.  (PubMed)

91.  Anderson RA, Roussel AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(3):212-218.  (PubMed)

92.  Seet RC, Lee CY, Lim EC, et al. Oral zinc supplementation does not improve oxidative stress or vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levels. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219(1):231-239.  (PubMed)

93.  Lai H, Lai S, Shor-Posner G, Ma F, Trapido E, Baum MK. Plasma zinc, copper, copper:zinc ratio, and survival in a cohort of HIV-1-infected homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;27(1):56-62.  (PubMed)

94.  Wellinghausen N, Kern WV, Jochle W, Kern P. Zinc serum level in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to immunological status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;73(2):139-149.  (PubMed)

95.  Mocchegiani E, Muzzioli M. Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1424S-1431S.  (PubMed)

96.  Baum MK, Lai S, Sales S, Page JB, Campa A. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of zinc supplementation to prevent immunological failure in HIV-infected adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(12):1653-1660.  (PubMed)

97.  Tang AM, Graham NM, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(12):1244-1256.  (PubMed)

98.  Zeng L, Zhang L. Efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation for adults, children and pregnant women with HIV infection: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(12):1474-1482.  (PubMed)

99.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. 2012. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov. Accessed 2/19/13.

100.  Nations SP, et al. Denture cream: an unusual source of excess zinc, leading to hypocupremia and neurologic disease. Neurology. 2008;71(9):639-643.  (PubMed)

101.  McBride K, Slotnick B, Margolis FL. Does intranasal application of zinc sulfate produce anosmia in the mouse? An olfactometric and anatomical study. Chem Senses. 2003;28(8):659-670.  (PubMed)

102.  Zinc. In: Hendler S RD, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference Inc.; 2008.

103.  Minerals. In Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 2000:27-51.