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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Biotin


1.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Biotin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:374-389.  (National Academy Press)

2.  Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:459-466.

3.  Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE, Jr. Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):477S-484S.  (PubMed)

4.  Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. 1999; volume 10: pages 128-138. J Nutr. Biochem. 1999;10:128-138.

5.  Hymes J, Wolf B. Human biotinidase isn't just for recycling biotin. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):485S-489S.  (PubMed)

6.  Zempleni J, Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000;223(1):14-21.  (PubMed)

7.  Kothapalli N, Camporeale G, Kueh A, et al. Biological functions of biotinylated histones. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16(7):446-448.  (PubMed)

8.  Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:498-506.

9.  Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mice and perhaps humans: a review of biotin deficiency during human pregnancy and effects of biotin deficiency on gene expression and enzyme activities in mouse dam and fetus. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16(7):435-437.  (PubMed)

10.  Stratton SL, Bogusiewicz A, Mock MM, Mock NI, Wells AM, Mock DM. Lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase and its activation by biotin are sensitive indicators of marginal biotin deficiency in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):384-388.  (PubMed)

11.  Mock D, Henrich C, Carnell N, Mock N, Swift L. Lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase and accumulation of odd-chain fatty acid in plasma and erythrocytes are useful indicators of marginal biotin deficiency small star, filled. J Nutr Biochem. 2002;13(8):462.  (PubMed)

12.  Baumgartner ER, Suormala T. Inherited defects of biotin metabolism. Biofactors. 1999;10(2-3):287-290.

13.  Mardach R, Zempleni J, Wolf B, et al. Biotin dependency due to a defect in biotin transport. J Clin Invest. 2002;109(12):1617-1623.  (PubMed)

14.  Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(2):295-299.  (PubMed)

15.  Pabuccuoglu A, Aydogdu S, Bas M. Serum biotinidase activity in children with chronic liver disease and its clinical significance. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002;34(1):59-62.  (PubMed)

16.  Mock DM. Biotin status: which are valid indicators and how do we know? J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):498S-503S.  (PubMed)

17.  Schulpis KH, Karikas GA, Tjamouranis J, Regoutas S, Tsakiris S. Low serum biotinidase activity in children with valproic acid monotherapy. Epilepsia. 2001;42(10):1359-1362.  (PubMed)

18.  Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is common in normal human pregnancy and is highly teratogenic in mice. J Nutr. 2009; 139(1):154-157.  (PubMed)

19.  Zhang H, Osada K, Sone H, Furukawa Y. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997;43(3):271-280.  (PubMed)

20.  Maebashi M, Makino Y, Furukawa Y, Ohinata K, Kimura S, Sato T. Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1993;14:211-218.

21.  Baez-Saldana A, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Revilla-Monsalve C, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(2):238-243.  (PubMed)

22.  Revilla-Monsalve C, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Islas-Andrade S, et al. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60(4):182-185.  (PubMed)

23.  Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, Finch M, Komorowski JR. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007;333(3):145-153.  (PubMed)

24.  Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Geohas J, Juturu V, Finch MR, Komorowski JR. Combination of chromium and biotin improves coronary risk factors in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Cardiometab Syndr. 2007;2(2):91-97.  (PubMed)

25.  Singer GM, Geohas J. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006;8(6):636-643.  (PubMed)

26.  Albarracin CA, Fuqua BC, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008;24(1):41-51.  (PubMed)

27.  Broadhurst CL, Domenico P. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006;8(6):677-687.  (PubMed)

28.  Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose levels in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1985;447:389-392.

29.  Romero-Navarro G, Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, et al. Biotin regulation of pancreatic glucokinase and insulin in primary cultured rat islets and in biotin-deficient rats. Endocrinology. 1999;140(10):4595-4600.  (PubMed)

30.  Floersheim GL. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z Hautkr. 1989;64(1):41-48.  (PubMed)

31.  Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis. 1993;51(4):303-305.  (PubMed)

32.  Briggs DR, Wahlqvist ML. Food facts: the complete no-fads-plain-facts guide to healthy eating. Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books; 1988.

33.  Staggs CG, Sealey WM, McCabe BJ, Teague AM, Mock DM. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding. J Food Compost Anal. 2004;17(6):767-776.  (PubMed)

34.  Said HM, Ortiz A, McCloud E, Dyer D, Moyer MP, Rubin S. Biotin uptake by human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells: a carrier-mediated process shared with pantothenic acid. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(5 Pt 1):C1365-1371.  (PubMed)

35.  Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother. 1990;44(10):511-514.  (PubMed)

36.  Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, Zammit CM, Richard RC, Castot AC. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35(4):424-426.  (PubMed)

37.  Zempleni J, Mock DM. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: ; Inhibition of biotin transport by reversible competition with pantothenic acid is quantitatively minor. J Nutr Biochem. 1999;10(7):427-432.  (PubMed)

38.  Flodin N. Pharmacology of micronutrients. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.; 1988.

39.  Camporeale G, Zempleni J. Biotin. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:314-326.