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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin A


1.  Groff JL. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 2nd ed. St Paul: West Publishing; 1995.

2.  Ross AC. Vitamin A and retinoids. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC. ed. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:305-327.

3.  Semba RD. The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(1 Pt 2):S38-48.

4.  Semba RD. Impact of vitamin A on immunity and infection in developing countries. In: Bendich A, Decklebaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc; 2001:329-346.

5.  McCullough, F. et al. The effect of vitamin A on epithelial integrity. Nutr Soc. 1999; volume 58: pages 289-293.  (PubMed)

6.  Solomons NW. Vitamin A and carotenoids. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2001:127-145.

7.  Lynch SR. Interaction of iron with other nutrients. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(4):102-110.  (PubMed)

8.  Russell RM. The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(4):878-884.  (PubMed)

9.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

10.  Christian P, West KP, Jr. Interactions between zinc and vitamin A: an update. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):435S-441S.  (PubMed)

11.  Suharno D, West CE, Muhilal, Karyadi D, Hautvast JG. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet. 1993;342(8883):1325-1328.  (PubMed)

12.  Jang JT, Green JB, Beard JL, Green MH. Kinetic analysis shows that iron deficiency decreases liver vitamin A mobilization in rats. J Nutr. 2000;130(5):1291-1296.  (PubMed)

13.  Rosales FJ, Jang JT, Pinero DJ, Erikson KM, Beard JL, Ross AC. Iron deficiency in young rats alters the distribution of vitamin A between plasma and liver and between hepatic retinol and retinyl esters. J Nutr. 1999;129(6):1223-1228.  (PubMed)

14.  Underwood BA, Arthur P. The contribution of vitamin A to public health. FASEB J. 1996;10(9):1040-1048.  (PubMed)

15.  Semba RD. Vitamin A and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nutr Soc. 1997;56(1B):459-469.

16.  Field CJ, Johnson IR, Schley PD. Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71(1):16-32.  (PubMed)

17.  West CE. Vitamin A and measles. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(2 Pt 2):S46-54.

18.  Thurnham DI, Northrop-Clewes CA. Optimal nutrition: vitamin A and the carotenoids. Nutr Soc. 1999;58(2):449-457.  (PubMed)

19.  Wiysonge CS, Shey MS, Sterne JA, Brocklehurst P. Vitamin A supplementation for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(4):CD003648.  (PubMed)

20.  Ramasethu J. Semba RD, et al., Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994;343:1593-7. Pediatr AIDS HIV Infect. 1995;6(5):303-304.

21.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin A. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:82-161.  (National Academy Press)

22.  Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ. Preventive nutrition and lung cancer. In: Bendich A, Decklebaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc; 2001:97-129.

23.  Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(18):1150-1155.  (PubMed)

24.  Prakash P, Krinsky NI, Russell RM. Retinoids, carotenoids, and human breast cancer cell cultures: a review of differential effects. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(6):170-176.  (PubMed)

25.  Bohlke K, Spiegelman D, Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Trichopoulos D. Vitamins A, C and E and the risk of breast cancer: results from a case-control study in Greece. Br J Cancer. 1999;79(1):23-29.  (PubMed)

26.  Franceschi S. Micronutrients and breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997;6(6):535-539.  (PubMed)

27.  Longnecker MP, Newcomb PA, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(11):887-892.  (PubMed)

28. Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Ljung H, Bruce A, Wolk A. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer. 2001;91(4):563-567.  (PubMed)

29.  Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):547-556.  (PubMed)

30.  Ching S, Ingram D, Hahnel R, Beilby J, Rossi E. Serum levels of micronutrients, antioxidants and total antioxidant status predict risk of breast cancer in a case control study. J Nutr. 2002;132(2):303-306.  (PubMed)

31.  Hulten K, Van Kappel AL, Winkvist A, et al. Carotenoids, alpha-tocopherols, and retinol in plasma and breast cancer risk in northern Sweden. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(6):529-537.  (PubMed)

32.  Dorgan JF, Sowell A, Swanson CA, et al. Relationships of serum carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and selenium with breast cancer risk: results from a prospective study in Columbia, Missouri (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1998;9(1):89-97.  (PubMed)

33.  van Soest S, Westerveld A, de Jong PT, Bleeker-Wagemakers EM, Bergen AA. Retinitis pigmentosa: defined from a molecular point of view. Surv Ophthalmol. 1999;43(4):321-334.  (PubMed)

34.  Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(6):761-772.  (PubMed)

35.  Sibulesky L, Hayes KC, Pronczuk A, Weigel-DiFranco C, Rosner B, Berson EL. Safety of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A daily in adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(4):656-663.  (PubMed)

36.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

37.  Penniston KL, Tanumihardjo SA. The acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(2):191-201.  (PubMed)

38.  Chan A, Hanna M, Abbott M, Keane RJ. Oral retinoids and pregnancy. Med J Aust. 1996;165(3):164-167. (PubMed)

39.  Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Charles P, et al. No effect of vitamin A intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15(11):872-880.  (PubMed)

40.  Sowers MF, Wallace RB. Retinol, supplemental vitamin A and bone status. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43(7):693-699.  (PubMed)

41.  Ballew C, Galuska D, Gillespie C. High serum retinyl esters are not associated with reduced bone mineral density in the Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(12):2306-2312.  (PubMed)

42.  Michaelsson K, Lithell H, Vessby B, Melhus H. Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(4):287-294.  (PubMed)

43.  Promislow JH, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E. Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17(8):1349-1358.  (PubMed)

44.  Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002;287(1):47-54.  (PubMed)

45.  Rohde CM, DeLuca H. Bone resorption activity of all-trans retinoic acid is independent of vitamin D in rats. J Nutr. 2003;133(3):777-783.  (PubMed)

46.  Johansson S, Melhus H. Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(10):1899-1905.  (PubMed)

47.  Wang XD. Chronic alcohol intake interferes with retinoid metabolism and signaling. Nutr Rev. 1999;57(2):51-59.  (PubMed)

48.  Leo MA, Lieber CS. Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(6):1071-1085.  (PubMed)