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Micronutrient Information Center

References: The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)


1.  Pelletier, O. & Keith, M.O. Bioavailability of synthetic and natural ascorbic acid. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1974; 64: 271-275

2.  Mangels, A.R. et al. The bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid from oranges, orange juice, and cooked broccoli is similar to that of synthetic ascorbic acid. Journal of Nutrition. 1993; volume 123: pages 1054-1061.  (PubMed)

3.  Gregory, J.F. Ascorbic acid bioavailability in foods and supplements. Nutrition Reviews. 1993; volume 51: pages 301-309.  (PubMed)

4.  Yung, S. et al. Ascorbic acid absorption in humans: a comparison among several dosage forms. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1982; volume 71: pages 282-285.  (PubMed)

5.  Nyyssonen, K. et al. Effect of supplementation of smoking men with plain or slow release ascorbic acid on lipoprotein oxidation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997; volume 51: pages 154-163.  (PubMed)

6.  Viscovich M, Lykkesfeldt J, Poulsen HE. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics of plain and slow release formulations in smokers. Clinical nutrition. 2004;23(5):1043-1050.  (PubMed)

7.  Carr AC, Vissers MC. Synthetic or food-derived vitamin C-are they equally bioavailable? Nutrients. 2013;5(11):4284-4304.  (PubMed)

8.  Vinson, J.A. & Bose, P. Comparative bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid alone or in a citrus extract. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1988; volume 48: pages 501-604.  (PubMed)

9.   Uchida E, Kondo Y, Amano A, et al. Absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid alone and in acerola (Malpighia emarginata) juice: comparison in healthy Japanese subjects. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(11):1744-1747. (PubMed)

10.   Carr AC, Bozonet SM, Pullar JM, Simcock JW, Vissers MC. A randomized steady-state bioavailability study of synthetic versus natural (kiwifruit-derived) vitamin C. Nutrients. 2013;5(9):3684-3695. (PubMed)

11.   Jones E, Hughes RE. The influence of bioflavonoids on the absorption of vitamin C. IRCS Med Sci. 1984;12:320.

12.  Johnston, C.S. & Luo, B. Comparison of the absorption and excretion of three commercially available sources of vitamin C. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1994; volume 94: pages 779-781.

13.  Cort, W.M. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate, and ascorbic acid and their mode of action. Journal of the American Oil Chemistsí Society. 1974; volume 51: pages 321-325.

14.  Ross, D. et al. Ascorbate 6-palmitate protects human erythrocytes from oxidative damage. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1999; volume 26: pages 81-89.  (PubMed)

15.  DeRitter, E. et al. Physiologic availability of dehydro-L-ascorbic acid and palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid. Science. 1951; volume 113: pages 628-631.

16.  Austria R. et al. Stability of vitamin C derivatives in solution and in topical formulations. Journal of Pharmacology and Biomedical Analysis. 1997; volume 15: pages 795-801.  (PubMed)

17.  Sauberlich, H.E. et al. Effects of erythorbic acid on vitamin C metabolism in young women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996; volume 64: pages 336-346.  (PubMed)

18.  Weeks BS, Perez PP. Absorption rates and free radical scavenging values of vitamin C-lipid metabolites in human lymphoblastic cells. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(10):BR205-210.  (PubMed)

19.  Weeks BS, Perez PP. A novel vitamin C preparation enhances neurite formation and fibroblast adhesion and reduces xenobiotic-induced T-cell hyperactivation. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(3):BR51-58.  (PubMed)

20.  Pancorbo D, Vazquez C, Fletcher MA. Vitamin C-lipid metabolites: uptake and retention and effect on plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels in healthy volunteers. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14(11):CR547-551.  (PubMed)