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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin D


1.  Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):362-371.  (PubMed)

2.  Bikle DD. Vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical applications. Chem Biol. 2014;21(3):319-329.  (PubMed)

3.  Volmer DA, Mendes LR, Stokes CS. Analysis of vitamin D metabolic markers by mass spectrometry: Current techniques, limitations of the "gold standard" method, and anticipated future directions. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2013; doi: 10.1002/mas.21408. [Epub ahead of print].  (PubMed)

4.  Holick MF. Vitamin D: A millenium perspective. J Cell Biochem. 2003;88(2):296-307.  (PubMed)

5.  Sutton AL, MacDonald PN. Vitamin D: more than a "bone-a-fide" hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17(5):777-791.  (PubMed)

6.  Grober U, Spitz J, Reichrath J, Kisters K, Holick MF. Vitamin D: Update 2013: From rickets prophylaxis to general preventive healthcare. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(3):331-347.  (PubMed)

7.  DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1689S-1696S.  (PubMed)

8.  Fukumoto S. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D. Bonekey Rep. 2014;3:497.  (PubMed)

9.  Lin R, White JH. The pleiotropic actions of vitamin D. Bioessays. 2004;26(1):21-28.  (PubMed)

10.  Edfeldt K, Liu PT, Chun R, et al. T-cell cytokines differentially control human monocyte antimicrobial responses by regulating vitamin D metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(52):22593-22598.  (PubMed)

11.  Smolders J, Thewissen M, Damoiseaux J. Control of T cell activation by vitamin D. Nat Immunol. 2011;12(1):3; author reply 3-4.  (PubMed)

12.  Aranow C. Vitamin D and the immune system. J Investig Med. 2011;59(6):881-886.  (PubMed)

13.  Zeitz U, Weber K, Soegiarto DW, Wolf E, Balling R, Erben RG. Impaired insulin secretory capacity in mice lacking a functional vitamin D receptor. FASEB J. 2003;17(3):509-511.  (PubMed)

14.  Bourlon PM, Billaudel B, Faure-Dussert A. Influence of vitamin D3 deficiency and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on de novo insulin biosynthesis in the islets of the rat endocrine pancreas. J Endocrinol. 1999;160(1):87-95.  (PubMed)

15.  Heer M, Egert S. Nutrients other than carbohydrates: their effects on glucose homeostasis in humans. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014; doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2533. [Epub ahead of print].  (PubMed)

16.  Sheng H-W. Sodium, chloride and potassium. In: Stipanuk M, ed. Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2000:686-710.

17.  Sigmund CD. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J Clin Invest. 2002;110(2):155-156.  (PubMed)

18.  Li YC, Kong J, Wei M, Chen ZF, Liu SQ, Cao LP. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. J Clin Invest. 2002;110(2):229-238.  (PubMed)

19.  Wagner CL, Greer FR, and the Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):1142-1152.  (PubMed).

20.  Goldacre M, Hall N, Yeates DG. Hospitalisation for children with rickets in England: a historical perspective. Lancet. 2014;383(9917):597-598.  (PubMed)

21.  Jones AN, Hansen KE. Recognizing the musculoskeletal manifestations of vitamin D deficiency. J Musculoskelet Med. 2009;26(10):389-396.  (PubMed)

22.  Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Mineral Metabolism. In: Larson PR, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, eds. Larsen: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology: Elsevier; 2003:1317-1320.

23.  Plotnikoff GA, Quigley JM. Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78(12):1463-1470.  (PubMed)

24.  Deandrea S, Lucenteforte E, Bravi F, Foschi R, La Vecchia C, Negri E. Risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2010;21(5):658-668.  (PubMed)

25.  Cooper JD, Smyth DJ, Walker NM, et al. Inherited variation in vitamin D genes is associated with predisposition to autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2011;60(5):1624-1631.  (PubMed)

26.  Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67(2):373-378.  (PubMed)

27.  Nichols EK, Khatib IM, Aburto NJ, et al. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(6):751-756.  (PubMed)

28.  Bassil D, Rahme M, Hoteit M, Fuleihan Gel H. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa: Prevalence, risk factors and impact on outcomes. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(2):274-298.  (PubMed)

29.  Balk SJ, Council on Environmental Health, Section on Dermatology. Ultraviolet radiation: a hazard to children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;127(3):e791-817.  (PubMed)

30.  Dawodu A, Tsang RC. Maternal vitamin D status: effect on milk vitamin D content and vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(3):353-361.  (PubMed)

31.  Thiele DK, Senti JL, Anderson CM. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to meet the needs of the breastfed infant: a systematic review. J Hum Lact. 2013;29(2):163-170.  (PubMed)

32.  Wharton B, Bishop N. Rickets. Lancet. 2003;362(9393):1389-1400.  (PubMed)

33.  Chen TC, Chimeh F, Lu Z, et al. Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;460(2):213-217.  (PubMed)

34.  Ginde AA, Liu MC, Camargo CA, Jr. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(6):626-632.  (PubMed)

35.  Powe CE, Evans MK, Wenger J, et al. Vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D status of black Americans and white Americans. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(21):1991-2000.  (PubMed)

36.  Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911-1930.  (PubMed)

37.  Harris SS, Soteriades E, Coolidge JA, Mudgal S, Dawson-Hughes B. Vitamin D insufficiency and hyperparathyroidism in a low income, multiracial, elderly population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(11):4125-4130.  (PubMed)

38.  Allain TJ, Dhesi J. Hypovitaminosis D in older adults. Gerontology. 2003;49(5):273-278.  (PubMed)

39.  Doorenbos CR, van den Born J, Navis G, de Borst MH. Possible renoprotection by vitamin D in chronic renal disease: beyond mineral metabolism. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(12):691-700.  (PubMed)

40.  Pappa HM, Bern E, Kamin D, Grand RJ. Vitamin D status in gastrointestinal and liver disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008;24(2):176-183.  (PubMed)

41.  Jahnsen J, Falch JA, Mowinckel P, Aadland E. Vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002;37(2):192-199.  (PubMed)

42.  Arunabh S, Pollack S, Yeh J, Aloia JF. Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(1):157-161.  (PubMed)

43.  Gallagher JC, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25(OH)D in thin and obese women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:195-200.  (PubMed)

44.  Deng X, Song Y, Manson JE, et al. Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III. BMC Med. 2013;11:187.  (PubMed)

45.  Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int. 1997;7(5):439-443.  (PubMed)

46.  Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(12):777-783.  (PubMed)

47.  Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Hale CA, Bendich A. Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(2):142-146.  (PubMed)

48.  Valcour A, Blocki F, Hawkins DM, Rao SD. Effects of age and serum 25-OH-vitamin D on serum parathyroid hormone levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(11):3989-3995.  (PubMed)

49.  Ginde AA, Wolfe P, Camargo CA, Jr., Schwartz RS. Defining vitamin D status by secondary hyperparathyroidism in the U.S. population. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35(1):42-48.  (PubMed)

50.  Gallagher JC, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. The effect of vitamin D on calcium absorption in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(10):3550-3556.  (PubMed)

51.  Looker AC, Johnson CL, Lacher DA, Pfeiffer CM, Schleicher RL, Sempos CT. Vitamin D status: United States, 2001-2006. NCHS Data Brief. 2011(59):1-8.  (PubMed)

52.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.  (The National Academies Press)

53.  Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(11):1807-1820.  (PubMed)

54.  Wacker M, Holick MF. Vitamin D - effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health and the need for supplementation. Nutrients. 2013;5(1):111-148.  (PubMed)

55.  Lips P, Hosking D, Lippuner K, et al. The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy amongst women with osteoporosis: an international epidemiological investigation. J Intern Med. 2006;260(3):245-254.  (PubMed)

56.  Torbergsen AC, Watne LO, Wyller TB, et al. Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D are independently and synergistically associated with a risk for hip fracture in an elderly population: A case control study. Clin Nutr. 2014; doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.01.016. [Epub ahead of print].  (PubMed)

57.  Lips P, van Schoor NM. The effect of vitamin D on bone and osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;25(4):585-591.  (PubMed)

58.  Feskanich D, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(2):504-511.  (PubMed)

59.  Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(7):669-683.  (PubMed)

60.  Gurney EP, Nachtigall MJ, Nachtigall LE, Naftolin F. The Women's Health Initiative trial and related studies: 10 years later: a clinician's view. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;142:4-11.  (PubMed)

61.  Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365(9471):1621-1628.  (PubMed)

62.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):18-28.  (PubMed)

63.  Chung M, Lee J, Terasawa T, Lau J, Trikalinos TA. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(12):827-838.  (PubMed)

64.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(1):40-49.  (PubMed)

65.  Avenell A, Mak JC, O'Connell D. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;4:CD000227.  (PubMed)

66.  Reid IR, Bolland MJ, Grey A. Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2014;383(9912):146-155.  (PubMed)

67.  Rosen CJ. Vitamin D supplementation: bones of contention. Lancet. 2014;383(9912):108-110.  (PubMed)

68.  Mocanu V, Vieth R. Three-year follow-up of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and bone mineral density in nursing home residents who had received 12 months of daily bread fortification with 125 mug of vitamin D3. Nutr J. 2013;12:137.  (PubMed)

69.  Boonen S, Lips P, Bouillon R, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P. Need for additional calcium to reduce the risk of hip fracture with vitamin d supplementation: evidence from a comparative metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(4):1415-1423.  (PubMed)

70.  Grant WB. Update on evidence that support a role of solar ultraviolet-B irradiance in reducing cancer risk. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013;13(1):140-146.  (PubMed)

71.  Yin L, Ordonez-Mena JM, Chen T, Schottker B, Arndt V, Brenner H. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration and total cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2013;57(6):753-764.  (PubMed)

72.  Raimondi S, Johansson H, Maisonneuve P, Gandini S. Review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30(7):1170-1180.  (PubMed)

73.  Gombart AF, Luong QT, Koeffler HP. Vitamin D compounds: activity against microbes and cancer. Anticancer Res. 2006;26(4A):2531-2542.  (PubMed)

74.  Thorne J, Campbell MJ. The vitamin D receptor in cancer. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008;67(2):115-127.  (PubMed)

75.  Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Calcium and vitamin D. Their potential roles in colon and breast cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:107-119.  (PubMed)

76.  Gandini S, Boniol M, Haukka J, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2011;128(6):1414-1424.  (PubMed)

77.  Ma Y, Zhang P, Wang F, Yang J, Liu Z, Qin H. Association between vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(28):3775-3782.  (PubMed)

78.  Touvier M, Chan DS, Lau R, et al. Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(5):1003-1016.  (PubMed)

79.  Peters U, McGlynn KA, Chatterjee N, et al. Vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin D receptor polymorphism in colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(12):1267-1274.  (PubMed)

80.  Holt PR, Arber N, Halmos B, et al. Colonic epithelial cell proliferation decreases with increasing levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(1):113-119.  (PubMed)

81.  Lee JE. Circulating levels of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis. Nutr Res Pract. 2011;5(5):464-470.  (PubMed)

82.  Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Wactawski-Wende J, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and health outcomes five years after active intervention ended: the Women's Health Initiative. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2013;22(11):915-929.  (PubMed)

83.  Holick MF. Calcium plus vitamin D and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(21):2287-2288; author reply 2287-2288.  (PubMed)

84.  Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, et al. Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(3):210-216.  (PubMed)

85.  Maalmi H, Ordonez-Mena JM, Schottker B, Brenner H. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and survival in colorectal and breast cancer patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Cancer. 2014; doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 Feb 28.  (PubMed)

86.  Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Relationship between low ultraviolet B irradiance and higher breast cancer risk in 107 countries. Breast J. 2008;14(3):255-260.  (PubMed)

87.  John EM, Schwartz GG, Dreon DM, Koo J. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8(5):399-406.  (PubMed)

88.  Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(17):1301-1311.  (PubMed)

89.  Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. Anticancer Res. 2011;31(9):2939-2948.  (PubMed)

90.  Wang D, Velez de-la-Paz OI, Zhai JX, Liu DW. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Tumour Biol. 2013;34(6):3509-3517.  (PubMed)

91.  Wang J, He Q, Shao YG, Ji M, Bao W. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Tumour Biol. 2013;34(6):3823-3830.  (PubMed)

92.  Ditsch N, Toth B, Mayr D, et al. The association between vitamin D receptor expression and prolonged overall survival in breast cancer. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60(2):121-129.  (PubMed)

93.  Rose AA, Elser C, Ennis M, Goodwin PJ. Blood levels of vitamin D and early stage breast cancer prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;141(3):331-339.  (PubMed)

94.  Sperati F, Vici P, Maugeri-Sacca M, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and breast cancer prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e69269.  (PubMed)

95.  Gilbert R, Martin RM, Beynon R, et al. Associations of circulating and dietary vitamin D with prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22(3):319-340.  (PubMed)

96.  van der Rhee H, Coebergh JW, de Vries E. Is prevention of cancer by sun exposure more than just the effect of vitamin D? A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(6):1422-1436.  (PubMed)

97.  Tuohimaa P, Tenkanen L, Ahonen M, et al. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2004;108(1):104-108.  (PubMed)

98.  Ahn J, Peters U, Albanes D, et al. Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(11):796-804.  (PubMed)

99.  Prescott J, Bertrand KA, Poole EM, Rosner BA, Tworoger SS. Surrogates of long-term vitamin d exposure and ovarian cancer risk in two prospective cohort studies. Cancers (Basel). 2013;5(4):1577-1600.  (PubMed)

100.  Gandini S, Raimondi S, Gnagnarella P, Dore JF, Maisonneuve P, Testori A. Vitamin D and skin cancer: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(4):634-641.  (PubMed)

101.  Deluca HF, Cantorna MT. Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology. FASEB J. 2001;15(14):2579-2585.  (PubMed)

102.  Agmon-Levin N, Mosca M, Petri M, Shoenfeld Y. Systemic lupus erythematosus one disease or many? Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11(8):593-595.  (PubMed)

103.  Goodin DS. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: insights to disease pathogenesis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:231-266.  (PubMed)

104.  Littorin B, Blom P, Scholin A, et al. Lower levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D among young adults at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects: results from the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS). Diabetologia. 2006;49(12):2847-2852.  (PubMed)

105.  Pozzilli P, Manfrini S, Crino A, et al. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2005;37(11):680-683.  (PubMed)

106.  Raab J, Giannopoulou EZ, Schneider S, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-type 1 diabetes and its association with disease progression. Diabetologia. 2014;57(5):902-908.  (PubMed)

107.  Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358(9292):1500-1503.  (PubMed)

108.  Sorensen IM, Joner G, Jenum PA, Eskild A, Torjesen PA, Stene LC. Maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Diabetes. 2012;61(1):175-178.  (PubMed)

109.  Brekke HK, Ludvigsson J. Vitamin D supplementation and diabetes-related autoimmunity in the ABIS study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8(1):11-14.  (PubMed)

110.  Fronczak CM, Baron AE, Chase HP, et al. In utero dietary exposures and risk of islet autoimmunity in children. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3237-3242.  (PubMed)

111.  Marjamaki L, Niinisto S, Kenward MG, et al. Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in offspring. Diabetologia. 2010;53(8):1599-1607.  (PubMed)

112.  Miettinen ME, Reinert L, Kinnunen L, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level during early pregnancy and type 1 diabetes risk in the offspring. Diabetologia. 2012;55(5):1291-1294.  (PubMed)

113.  Smolders J, Thewissen M, Peelen E, et al. Vitamin D status is positively correlated with regulatory T cell function in patients with multiple sclerosis. PLoS One. 2009;4(8):e6635.  (PubMed)

114.  Staples J, Ponsonby AL, Lim L. Low maternal exposure to ultraviolet radiation in pregnancy, month of birth, and risk of multiple sclerosis in offspring: longitudinal analysis. BMJ. 2010;340:c1640.  (PubMed)

115.  Bjornevik K, Riise T, Casetta I, et al. Sun exposure and multiple sclerosis risk in Norway and Italy: The EnvIMS study. Mult Scler. 2014; 20(8):1042-1049.  (PubMed)

116.  McDowell TY, Amr S, Culpepper WJ, et al. Sun exposure, vitamin D and age at disease onset in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology. 2011;36(1):39-45.  (PubMed)

117.  Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2006;296(23):2832-2838.  (PubMed)

118.  Munger KL, Zhang SM, O'Reilly E, et al. Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2004;62(1):60-65.  (PubMed)

119.  Kampman MT, Steffensen LH, Mellgren SI, Jorgensen L. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on relapses, disease progression, and measures of function in persons with multiple sclerosis: exploratory outcomes from a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Mult Scler. 2012;18(8):1144-1151.  (PubMed)

120.  Soilu-Hanninen M, Aivo J, Lindstrom BM, et al. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial with vitamin D3 as an add on treatment to interferon beta-1b in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83(5):565-571.  (PubMed)

121.  Ascherio A, Munger KL, White R, et al. Vitamin D as an early predictor of multiple sclerosis activity and progression. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71(3):306-314.  (PubMed)

122.  Bruce D, Whitcomb JP, August A, McDowell MA, Cantorna MT. Elevated non-specific immunity and normal Listeria clearance in young and old vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Int Immunol. 2009;21(2):113-122.  (PubMed)

123.  Zwerina K, Baum W, Axmann R, et al. Vitamin D receptor regulates TNF-mediated arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70(6):1122-1129.  (PubMed)

124.  Hitchon CA, Sun Y, Robinson DB, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphism rs2228570 (Fok1) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis in North American natives. J Rheumatol. 2012;39(9):1792-1797.  (PubMed)

125.  Lee YH, Bae SC, Choi SJ, Ji JD, Song GG. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38(6):3643-3651.  (PubMed)

126.  Mosaad YM, Hammad EM, Fawzy Z, et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism as possible risk factor in rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid related osteoporosis. Hum Immunol. 2014;75(5):452-461.  (PubMed)

127.  Zanetti M, Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Ability of vitamin D to reduce inflammation in adults without acute illness. Nutr Rev. 2014;72(2):95-98.  (PubMed)

128.  Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Saag KG. Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(1):72-77.  (PubMed)

129.  Costenbader KH, Feskanich D, Holmes M, Karlson EW, Benito-Garcia E. Vitamin D intake and risks of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in women. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(4):530-535.  (PubMed)

130.  Hiraki LT, Munger KL, Costenbader KH, Karlson EW. Dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence and risk of adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(12):1829-1836.  (PubMed)

131.  Sen D, Ranganathan P. Vitamin D in rheumatoid arthritis: panacea or placebo? Discov Med. 2012;14(78):311-319.  (PubMed)

132.  Hansen KE, Bartels CM, Gangnon RE, Jones AN, Gogineni J. An evaluation of high-dose vitamin D for rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2014;20(2):112-114.  (PubMed)

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